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प्रश्नार्थक सर्वनाम व त्याचे उपयोग

प्रश्नार्थक सर्वनाम व त्याचे उपयोग

  • खालील वाक्ये अभ्यासा –
  1. Who is there? Who are you?
  2. About whom are you talking?/Who are you?
  3. Whom do you want?/Who do you want?
  4. Whose is this book?
  5. Which is the house?
  6. Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?
  7. What is the matter?
  8. What do you want?
  9. What will all the neighbours say?
  • असे लक्षात येते की, तिरक्या अक्षरातील सर्वनामांची रुपे संबंधी सर्वनामांच्या रूपांप्रमाणेच आहेत. परंतु त्यांचे कार्य भिन्न आहे. येथे ती प्रश्न विचारण्यासाठी वापरली आहेत म्हणून त्यांना प्रश्नार्थक सर्वनामे (Interrogative Pronouns) असे म्हणतात.
  • खालील वाक्यांत अप्रत्यक्षपणे प्रश्न विचारण्यासाठी प्रश्नार्थक सर्वनामे वापरली आहेत.
  1. I asked who was speaking.
  2. I do not know who is there.
  3. Tell me what you have done.
  4. Ask what he wants.
  5. Say which you would like best.
  • परंतु खालील वाक्ये विचारात घ्या –
  1. Who gave you that knife?- (Nominative) (प्रथमा)
  2. Whose is this book? – (Possessive) (षष्ठी)
  3. Whom did you see?/Who did you see? – (Accusative) (व्दितीया)
  4. To whom were you speaking?/Who were you speaking to? – (Accusative) (व्दितीया)
  5. What is that? – (Nominative) (प्रथमा)
  6. What do you want? – (Accusative) (व्दितीया)
  7. Which is he? – (Nominative) (प्रथमा)
  8. Which do you prefer? – (Accusative) (व्दितीया)
  • (Nominative) प्रथमा   – who
  • (Possessive) षष्ठी    – whose        } पुल्लिंगी व स्त्रीलिंगी  
  • (Accusative) व्दितीया – whom/who    } एकवचन आणि अनेकवचन
  • विशेषत: इंग्रजी बोलीभाषेत, आजकाल व्दितीयेत ‘whom’ ऐवजी ‘who’ हे रूप सामन्यात: वापरले जाते.
  • भिन्न विभक्तीत ‘what’ आणि which ची वेगळी रूप नाहीत.
  • ‘Who’ हे फक्त व्यक्तींसाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. Who spoke? (We expect the answer to be the name of a person).
  2. Who goes there? Who made the top score?
  3. Who is knocking at the door? Who says so?
  4. Whose is this umbrella? Whom did you see?
  • ‘Which’ व्यक्ती आणि वस्तू दोहोंसाठी वापरतात. हे (which) निवड (selection) सूचित करते. म्हणजेच मर्यादित संख्येशी संबंधित प्रश्न सूचित करते.

उदा.

  1. Which is your friend? Which are your books?
  2. Which of the boys saw him?
  3. Which of you has done this?
  4. Which of these books is yours?
  5. Which of the pictures do you like best?
  6. Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?
  7. Which will you take?
  • ‘What’ हे फक्त वस्तूंसाठीच वापरतात.
  1. What have you found? (We expect the answer to be the name of a thing.)
  2. What do you want? What did you say?
  3. What was it all about?
  4. What is sweeter than honey?
  5. What are those marks on your coat?
  • ‘What are you?’ ‘What is he?’ ‘What is this man?’ यांसारख्या वक्तव्यात ‘What’ हा शब्द त्या व्यक्तीचा उल्लेख करीत नसून तिचा व्यवसाय किंवा नोकरीचा उल्लेख करीत आहे.
  1. What are you? ____ I am a doctor.
  2. What is he? ____ He is an engineer.
  • खालील वाक्यांमध्ये ‘what’ आणि ‘which’ प्रश्नार्थक विशेषणे म्हणून उपयोगात आली आहेत.
  1. Which book are your reading?
  2. Which way shall we go?
  3. What books have you read?
  4. What pranks are you playing?
  5. What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?
  • तळटीप – आजकाल ‘What do you do?’ ‘what does he do?’ इत्यादी म्हणणे आधिक रूढ आहे.
  • खालील वाक्यांमध्ये तिरक्या अक्षरात लिहिलेले शब्द संयुक्त प्रश्नार्थक (Compound Interrogative Pronouns) विशेषणे म्हणून वापरली आहेत.
  1. Whoever told you so?
  2. whatever are you doing?
  • टीप – Whoever, whichever, whatever ही रुपे अधिक सखोल (intensive) आहेत.
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