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उभयान्वयी अव्यय व त्याचे प्रकार

Category: English (ईंग्रजी) Published on 01 February 2016
Written by Shital Burkule Hits: 7750

उभयान्वयी अव्यय व त्याचे प्रकार

  • खालील वाक्ये वाचा -
  1. God made the country and man made the town.
  2. Our hoard is little, but our hearts are great.
  3. She must weep, or she will die.
  4. Two and two make four.

  • 1,2 आणि 3 या वाक्यांत उभयान्वयी अव्यय (conjunction) दोन वाक्ये जोडते.

  • चवथ्या (4) वाक्यात उभयान्वयी अव्यय फक्त दोन शब्दांना जोडते.

  • व्याख्या - उभयान्वयी अव्यय म्हणजे असा शब्द जो फक्त वाक्ये जोडतो आणि कधी-कधी शब्ददेखील.

  • उभयान्वयी अव्यये वाक्ये जोडतात आणि बर्‍याच वेळा वाक्यांना अधिक आटोपशीर (compact) बनवितात.

  • उदा. 'Balu and Vithal are good bowlers' हे वाक्य 'Balu is a good bowler and Vithal is good bowler.' हे सांगण्याचा सोपा मार्ग आहे.

  • म्हणून - 'The man is poor, but honest' हा The man is poor, but he is honest हे सांगण्याचा सोपा मार्ग आहे.

  • कधीकधी and हे उभयान्वयी अव्यय फक्त शब्दांना जोडते.

उदा.

  1. Two and two make four.
  2. Hari and Rama are brothers.
  3. Hari and Rama came home together.

  • अशा प्रकारच्या वाक्यांना दोन वाक्यात विभाजित करता येत नाही.

  • संबंधी सर्वनामे (Relative Pronouns), संबंधी क्रियाविशेषणे (Relative Adverbs) व शब्दयोगी अव्यये (Prepositions), हे जोडणारे शब्द आहेत, यांपासून उभयान्वयी अव्यये (Conjuctions) काळजीपूर्वक वेगळी काढता आली पाहिजेते.

  1. This is the house that Jack built. (Relative Pronoun)
  2. This is the place where he was murdered. (Relative Adverb)
  3. Take this and give that. (Conjunction)

  • पहिल्या वाक्यात that हे संबंधी सर्वनाम (Relative Pronoun) house या नामाचा संदर्भ देते आणि वाक्याचे दोन भाग जोडते.

  • दुसर्‍या वाक्यात where हे संबंधी क्रियाविशेषण (Relative Adverb) was murdered या क्रियापदाची व्याप्ती मर्यादित करते आणि वाक्याचे दोन भाग जोडते.

  • तिसर्‍या वाक्यात and हे उभयान्वयी अव्यय (conjunction) फक्त वाक्याचे दोन भाग जोडते त्या व्यतिरिक्त कोणतेच कार्य करीत नाही.

  • यावरून असे दिसून येते की -

  • संबंधी सर्वनामे व संबंधी क्रियाविशेषणे देखील शब्द/वाक्ये जोडतात. परंतु ती याहूनही अधिक कार्य करतात.

  • उभयान्वयी अव्यये जोडण्या व्यतिरिक्त दुसरे काहीच कार्य करीत नाहीत.

  • लक्षात घ्या! शब्दयोगी अव्ययेदेखील शब्द जोडतात परंतु ती याहूनही अधिक काही करतात. ती नाम किंवा सर्वनाम यांना नियंत्रित करतात.

उदा.

He sat beside Rama. He stood behind me.

 

  • काही उभयान्वयी अव्यये जोडी स्वरुपात वापरता येतात. त्यांना परस्परसंबंधी उभयान्वयी अव्यये (correlative conjunctions) किंवा फक्त परस्परसंबंधी (correlatives) असे म्हणतात.

उदा.

Either-or.                    Either take it or leave it.

Neither-nor.                It is neither useful nor ornamental.

Both-and                   We both love and honour him.

Though-Yet.(rare in    Thaough he is suffering much pain, yet he does not complain.

current English)

Whether-or.               I do not care whether you go or stay.

Not only-but also.      Not only is he foolish, but also obstinate.

 

  • जेव्हा उभयान्वयी अव्यये परस्परसंबंधी म्हणून वापरतात तेव्हा परस्पर संबंधी शब्दांपैकी प्रत्येक शब्द ज्या शब्दाशी जोडावयाचा आहे त्याच्या लगेच आधी वापरला पाहिजे.

उदा.

  1. He visited not only Agra, but also Delhi.
  2. He not only visited Agra, but also Delhi.

  • आपण बर्‍याच संयुक्त अभिव्यक्ती उभयान्वयी अव्यये म्हणून वपारतो. त्यांना संयुक्त उभयान्वयी अव्यये असे म्हणतात. (Compound Conjunctions)

In order that.           The notice was published in order that all might know the facts.

On conditions that.   I will forgive you on condition that you do not repeat the offence.

Even if.                    Such an act would not be kind even if it were just.

So that.                  He saved some bread so that he should not go hungry on the morrow.

Provided that.          You can borrow that book provided that you return it soon.

As though.             He walks as though he is slightly lame.

In as much as.         I must refuse your request, in as much as I believe it unreasonable.

As well as.              Rama as well as Govind was present there.

As soon as.            He took off his coat as soon as he entered the house.

As if.                      He looks as if he were weary.

उभयान्वयी अव्ययांचे वर्ग भिन्न रुपे (CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS) -

  • उभयान्वयी अव्यय दोन वर्गात विभाजित होतात. 1. सम संयोगी (co-ordinating) 2. असम संयोगी (subordinating)

  • हे वाक्य वाचा - Birds fly and fish swim.

  • या वाक्यात दोन स्वतंत्र विधाने किंवा समान श्रेणी किंवा समान महत्व असणारी दोन विधाने समाविष्ट आहेत. म्हणूनच अशी दोन वाक्ये किंवा समश्रेणीची उपवाक्ये जोडणार्‍या उभयान्वयी अव्ययाला समसंयोगी उभयान्वयी असे म्हणतात.

  • (co-ordinating) चा अर्थ 'of equal rank' समश्रेणीचा असा आहे.

  • व्याख्या - समसंयोगी उभयान्वयी अव्यय समान श्रेणीची उपवाक्ये जोडते.

  • मुख्य समसंयोगी उभयान्वयी अव्यये खालीलप्रमाणे आहेत.

  • And, but, for, or, nor, also, either.....or, neither.....nor.

  • समसंयोगी उभयान्वयी अव्यये चार प्रकारची असतात.

1. समुच्चयदर्शक (cumulative किंवा copulative) जे फक्त एकामध्ये दुसरे विधान मिळविते.

उदा.

We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone.

 

2. विरोधदर्शक (Adversative) जे दोन विधानातील विरोध किंवा विभिन्नता (contrast) व्यक्त करते.

उदा.

  1. He is slow, but he is sure.
  2. I was annoyed, still I kept quiet.
  3. I would come; only that I am engaged.
  4. He was all right; only he was fatigued.

3. विकल्पदर्शक किंवा पर्यायदर्शक (Disjunctive किंवा Alternative) जे दोन पर्यायापैकी एकाची निवड करते.

उदा.

  1. She must weep, or she will die.
  2. Either he is mad, or he feigns madness.
  3. Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.
  4. They toil not, neither do they spin.
  5. Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him.

4. अनुमान/परिमाण दर्शक (Illative) जे एखादा परिमाण/अनुमान व्यक्त करते.

उदा.

  1. Something certainly fell in:for I heard a splash.
  2. All precautions must have been neglected, for the plague spread rapidly.

  • Or आणि nor हे अपवाद वगळता कोणतेही समसंयोगी उभयान्वयी अव्यय गाळता येते आणि त्या जागी स्वल्पविराम (comma) (,), विसर्ग (colon) (:), किंवा अर्धविराम (semi-colon)(;) वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. Ram went out to play, Hari stayed into work.
  2. हे वाक्य वाचा -I read the paper because it interests me.

  • या वाक्यातील दोन विधाने किंवा उपवाक्ये आहेत. यातील एक 'because it interests me' हे दुसर्‍यावर अवलंबून आहे. म्हणूनच जे उभयान्वयी अव्यय अवलंबित उपवाक्याची सुरुवात करते त्याला असमसंयोगी उभयान्वयी अव्यय (Subordinating Conjunction) म्हणतात.

  • व्याख्या - असमसंयोगी उभयान्वयी अव्यय हे एखादे उपवाक्य, त्याचा अर्थपूर्ण होण्यासाठी ज्याच्यावर अवलंबून असते त्या दोहोंना जोडते.

  • मुख्य असमसंयोगी उभयान्वयी अव्यये खालीलप्रमाणे आहेत -

  • After, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, as, when, where, while.
  1. After the shower was over the sun shone out again.
  2. A book's a book, although there is nothing in it.
  3. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
  4. He ran away because he was afraid.
  5. Answer the first question before you proceed rurther.
  6. Take heed ere it be too late.
  7. Except ye repent, you shall all likewise perish.
  8. You will pass if you work hard.
  9. Sentinesls were posted lest the camp should be taken by surprise.
  10. Since you say so, I must believe it.

  • अर्थानुसार असमसंयोगी उभयान्वयी अव्यये खालीलप्रमाने वर्गीकृत करता येतात.

1. काळ/काल (Time)

उदा

  1. I would die before I lied.
  2. No nation can be perfectly well governed till it is compertent t govern itself.
  3. Many things have happened since I saw you.
  4. I returned home after he had gone.
  5. Ere he blew three notes, there was a rusting.

2. हेतु किंवा कारण (Cause or Reason)

उदा

  1. My strength is as the strenght of ten, because my heart is pure.
  2. Since you wish it, it shall be done.
  3. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
  4. He may enter, as he is a friend.

3. उद्दिष्ट (Purpose)

उदा

  1. We eat so that we may live.
  2. He held my hand lest I should fall.

4. परिणाम किंवा निष्पत्ती (Result or consequence)
उदा

  1. He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.

5. अट (Condition)

उदा

  1. Rama will go if Hari goes.
  2. Grievances cannot be redressed unless they are known.

6. सवलत (concession)

उदा

  1. I will not see him, though he comes.
  2. Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him.
  3. A book's a book, although there' nothing in it.

7. तुलना (comparison)

उदा

He is stranger than Rustum [is].

  • काही शब्द शब्दयोगी अव्यये (prepositions) आणि अभयान्वयी अव्यये या दोहोंप्रमाणे वापरली जातात. (बघा $ 375)

     Preposition                                Conjunction

Stay till Monday                               We shall stay here till you return.

I have not met him since Monday       We shall go since you desire it.

He died for his country.                     I must stay here, for such is my duty.

The dog ran after the cat.                 We came after they had left.

Everybody but Govind was present.   He tried, but did not succeed.

He stood before the painting.            Look before you leap.

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