शब्दयोगी अव्यय व त्याचे प्रकार

Category: English (ईंग्रजी) Published on 01 February 2016
Written by Shital Burkule Hits: 8339

शब्दयोगी अव्यय व त्याचे प्रकार

  • खालील वाक्ये वाचा -
  1. There is a cow in the field.
  2. He is fond of tea.
  3. The cat jumped off the chair.
  • पहिल्या वाक्यात in हा शब्द cow आणि field या दोन गोष्टीतील संबंध दाखवितो.

  • दुसर्‍या वाक्यात of हा शब्द found या विशेषणाने व्यक्त केलेला गुणधर्म आणि tea यातील संबंध दाखवितो.

  • तिसर्‍या वाक्यात off हा शब्द jumped क्रियापदाने व्यक्त केलेली क्रिया आणि chair यातील संबंध दाखवितो.

  • येथे in, of, off हे शब्द शब्दयोगी अव्यये (preposition) म्हणून वापरले आहेत.

  • व्याख्या - नाम किंवा सर्वनामे यांच्या निर्देश केलेली वस्तु किंवा व्यक्ति यांचा दुसर्‍या कशाशी तरी काय संबंध आहे हे दाखविण्यासाठी नाम किंवा सर्वनाम यांच्या आधी येणार्‍या शब्दाला शब्दयोगी अव्यय (preposition) असे महतात.

  • (preposition म्हणजे जे आधी येते.)

  • असे लक्षात येईल की,
  1. पहिल्या वाक्यात शब्दयोगी अव्यय नामाला दुसर्‍या नामाशी जोडते.
  2. दुसर्‍या वाक्यात शब्दयोगी अव्यय नामाला विशेषणाशी जोडते.
  3. तिसर्‍या वाक्यात शब्दयोगी अव्यय नामाला क्रियापदाशी जोडते.

  • शब्दयोगी अव्ययाबरोबर वापरल्या जाणार्‍या नाम किंवा सर्वनामाला त्याचे कर्म असे म्हणतात. हे व्दितीया विभक्तीत (Accusative case) असते आणि ते शब्दयोगी अव्ययाव्दारे नियंत्रित (governed) असते.

  • अशाप्रकारे पहिल्या वाक्यात, field हे नाम व्दितीया विभक्तीत आणि in या शब्दयोगी अव्ययाने नियंत्रित केलेले आहे.

  • शब्दयोगी अव्ययाला दोनपेक्षा जास्त कर्मे असू शकतात.

उदा. The road runs over hill and plain.

  • सामन्यात: शब्दयोगी अव्यय हे नेहमी त्याच्या कर्माच्या आधी येते. परंतु कधीकधी कर्मानंतर पण येते.

जसे -

  1. Here is the watch that you asked for.
  2. That is the boy (whom) I was speaking of.
  3. What are you looking at?
  4. What are you thinking of?
  5. Which of these chairs did you sit on?

  • टीप 1 - पहिल्या वाक्यात दिल्याप्रमाणे जर that हे संबंधी सर्वनाम (Relative Pronoun) हे कर्म असेल तर शब्दयोगी अव्यय (Preposition) हे नेहमी शेवटी वापरतात.
  • जेव्हा कर्म हे सर्वनाम (जसे 3,4 आणि 5 या वाक्यात आहे) किंवा अध्याहत संबंधी सर्वनाम (वाक्य 2) असेल तेव्हा शब्दयोगी अव्यय नेहमी शेवटी येते.

  • टीप 2 - कधीकधी जोर देण्यासाठी कर्म प्रथम येते.

उदा. This I insist on. He is known all the world over.

  • काळवाचक किंवा स्थळवाचक नामांच्या आधी येणारी for, from, in, on इत्यादी शब्दयोगी अव्यये बरेचदा वगळलेली असतात.

उदा. We did it last week. I cannot walk a yard. Wait a minute.

शब्दयोगी अव्ययांचे प्रकार (KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS) -

  • शब्दयोगी अव्ययांची खालीलप्रमाणे वर्गवारी करता येईल. -

1. साधी शब्दयोगी अव्यये (Simple Prepositions)

  • At, by, for, from, in, of, off, on, out, through, till, to, up, with.

2. संयुक्त शब्दयोगी अव्यये (Compound Preposition) जी सामान्यत: नाम, विशेषण किंवा क्रियाविशेषण यांच्या आधी शब्दयोगी अव्यय जोडून (preposition) तयार होतात. (a=no or be=by)

  • About, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongest, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within, without.

3. वाक्यांश शब्दयोगी अव्यये (Phrase Prepositions) (एका शब्दयोगी अव्ययाच्या अर्थप्रमाणे उपयोगात आलेला शब्दासमूह)

  1. according to     in accordance with     in place of
  2. agreeably to     in addition to            in reference to
  3. along with        in (on) behalf of        in regard to
  4. away from        in case of                 in spite of
  5. because of       in comparison to       instead of
  6. by dint of        in compliance with     in the event of
  7. by means of     in comsequence of   on account of

  • खालील वाक्ये वाचा. -
  1. He succeeded by dint of perseverance and sheer hard work.
  2. In case of need 'phone to No. 32567.
  3. By virtue of the power vested in me, I hereby order, etc.
  4. In consequence of his illness he could not finish the work in time.
  5. Owing to his ill health, he retired from business.
  6. With reference to your letter of date, we regret we cannot allow any further rebate.
  7. In order to avoid litigation, he accepted Rs. 300 in full settlement of his claim for Rs. 450.
  8. In course of time he saw his mistake.
  9. He died fighting on behalf of his country.
  10. On behalf of the staff he read the address.

  • Barring, concerning, considering, during, notwithstanding, pending, regarding, respecting, touching आणि या सारखे काही शब्द जी क्रियापदाची वर्तमानकाळ वाचक धातुसाधित रुपे (Present participles) आहेत. ती कोणत्याही नाम किंवा सर्वनामाबरोबर न लावता स्वतंत्रपणे वापरतात.

  • व्यावहारिकदृष्टया ती शब्दयोगी अव्यये झाली आहेत आणि कधीकधी ती धातुसाधित शब्दयोगी अव्यये (Participle Preposition) म्हणून ओळखली जातात.

  1. Barring(=excepting, apart from) accident, the mail arrive tomorrow.
  2. Concernign(=about) yesterday's fire, there are many rumours in the bazar.
  3. Considering(=taking into account) the quality, the price is not high.
  4. Ulysses is said to have invented the game of chess during the siege of Troy.
  5. Notwithstanding(=in spite of) the resistance offered by him, he was arrested by the police.  
  6. Pending further orders, Mr. Desai will act as Headmaster.
  7. Regarding your inquiries, we regret to say that at present we are not interested in imitation silk.
  8. Respecting the plan you mention, I shall write to you hereafter.
  9. Touching(=with regard to) this matter, I have not as yet made up my mind.

  • अनेक शब्दांचा वापर कधी क्रियाविशेषण तर कधी शब्दयोगी अव्ययाप्रमाणे होतो. जेव्हा एखादा शब्द नाम किंवा सर्वनामाला नियंत्रित करतो तेव्हा तो शब्दयोगी अव्यय असतो जर नियंत्रित करीत नसेल तर तो क्रियाविशेषण असतो.

    Adverb                                                   Preposition

Go, and run about.                               Don't loiter about the street.     

I could not come before.                        I came the day before yesterday.     

Has he come in?                                   Is he in his room?    

The wheel came off.                              The driver jumped off the car.     

Let us move on.                                   The book lies on the table.     

Hist father arrived soon after.                After a month he returned.     

Take this parcel over to the post-office. He rules over a vast empire.     

I have not seen him since.                     I have not slept since yesterday.     

  • आपण बघितले आहे की शब्दयोगी अव्ययाचे कर्म हे नाम किंवा सर्वनाम असते. मात्र कधीकधी ते काळवाचक किंवा स्थळवाचक क्रियाविशेषण असते. (बघा $ 340)

उदा.

  1. I will be done by then(=that time)
  2. Since then(=that time) he has not shown his face.
  3. Come away from there(=that place).
  4. He must have reached there by now(=this time).
  5. How far is it from here(=this place)?
  6. It cannot last for ever.  

  • कधीकधी शब्दयोगी अव्ययाचे कर्म हे क्रियाविशेषण वाक्यांश (Adverbial Pharase) असते.

उदा.

  1. Each article was sold at over a pound.
  2. The noise comes from across the river.
  3. He was not promoted to the rank of a colonel till within a few months of his resignation.
  4. I sold my car for under its half cost.
  5. He swore from dawn till far into the night.

  • उपवाक्य (clause) देखील शब्दयोगी अव्ययाचे कर्म असू शकते.

उदा.

  1. Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.
  2. There is no meaning in what you say.

  • जेव्हा शब्दयोगी अव्ययाचे कर्मसंबंधी सर्वनाम (Relative Pronoun) असते तेव्हा ते कर्म कधीकधी वगळलेले असते.

उदा.

  1. He is the man I was looking for. [Here whom is understood].
  2. These are the good rules to live by. [Here which is understood].

  • नवीन क्रियापदे बनविण्यासाठी, क्रियापदांबरोबर शब्दयोगी अव्ययाचा संयुक्त वापर अधिक प्रचलित आहे. कधीकधी ते (शब्दयोगी अव्यय) क्रियापदाच्या आधी जोडतात.

  • उदा. Outbid, overcome, overflow, overlook, undergo, undertake, uphold, withdraw, withhold, withstand.

  • बर्‍याचवेळा शब्दयोगी अव्यये क्रियापदाच्या नंतर येतात आणि ती स्वतंत्र राहतात.

उदा.

  1. Boast of, laugh at, look for, send for.
  2. He boasted of his accomplishments.
  3. He looked for his watch every where.
  4. Please send for Rama.
  5. Everyone laughed at him.

शब्दयोगी अव्ययांनी व्यक्त केलेले संबंध (RELATIONS EXPRESSED BY PREPOSITIONS) -

  • शब्दयोगी अव्ययांनी दर्शविलेल्या सर्वसाधारण संबंधापैकी (most common relations) खालीलप्रमाणे आहेत:-

1. स्थळ/स्थान (place)

उदा.

Went about the world; ran across the road; leaned against a wall; fell among thieves; quarrelled among themselves; at death's door; athwart the deck; stook before the door; stood behind the curtain; lies below the surface; sat beside me; plies between Mumbai and Alibag; stand by me rain comes from the clouds; in the sky; fell into a ditch; lies near his heart; Kolkata is on the Hooghly; the cliff hangs over the sea; tour round the world; marched through the town; came to the end of the road; put pen to paper; travelled towards Nasik; lay under the table; climbed up the ladder; lies upon the table; within the house; stood without the gate.

 

2. काळ/काल (time)

उदा.

After his death; at an early date; arrived before me; behind time; by three o'clock; during the whole day; for many years; from 1st April; in the afternoon; sat watching far on into the night; lived under the Moghuls; on Monday; pending his return; since yesterday; lasted through the night; throughout the year; wait till tomorrow; ten minutes t twelve; towards evening; until his arrival; rise with the sun; within a month.  

 

3. माध्यम, साधन (Agency, instrumentality)

उदा.

Sell goods at auction; sent the parcel by post; was stunned by a blow; was destroyed fore; heard this through a friend; cut it with a knife.

 

4. पद्धत/रीती (manner)

उदा.

Dying by inches; fought with courage; worked with earnestness, won with ease.

 

5. हेतू, कारण, उद्दीष्ट (cause, reason, purpose)

उदा.

Laboured for the good of humanity; died of fever; the very place for a picnic; did it for our good; suffers from gout; diet from fatigue; does it from perversity; retreated through fear of an ambush; concealed it through shame; lost his purse through negligence; shivers with fever; took medicine for cold.

 

6. स्वामित्व/मालकी (possession)

उदा.

There was no money on him; the mosque of Omar; a man of means; the boy with red hair.

 

7. परिणाम, मापदंड, दर, मूल्य (Measure, standard, rate, value);

उदा.

He charges interest at nine per cent. Stories like these must be taken at what they are worth. Cloth is sold by the yard. I am taller than you by two inches. It was one by the tower-clock.

 

8. विरोध, सवलत (Contrast, concession)

उदा.

After (in spite of, notwithstanding) every effort, one may fail. For one enemy he has a hundred friends. For (in spite of) all his wealth he is not content. With (in spite of) all his faults I admire him.

 

9. अनुमान, हेतू, स्त्रोत किंवा उगम (Inference, motive, source or origin)

उदा.

From what I know of him. I hesitate to trust him. The knights were breave from gallantry of spirit. He did it from gratitude. Light emanates from the sun. From labour health, from health contentment springs. This is a quotation from Milton. His skill comes from practice.

 

  • टीप - असे दिसेल की एकच शब्दयोगी अव्यय त्याच्या वापारानुसार अनेक शीर्षकांसाठी वर्गीकृत करता येते.

  • खालील शब्दयोगी अव्ययांवर विशेष लक्ष देणे आवश्यक आहे.

1. शहरे, नगरे किंवा गावांच्या गावाबरोबर आपण in किंवा at वापरू शकतो. आधिकांशवेळी in चा उपयोग होतो. जेव्हा आपण एखाधा ठिकाणाविषयी प्रदेश या अर्थाने बोलतो तेव्हा in वापरतात. पण जेव्हा एखाधा स्थानाविषयी बोलायचे असेल तेव्हा at उपयोग होतो.

  1. We stayed in Mumbai for five days.
  2. Our plane stopped at Mumbai on the way to Iran.(Mumbai=Mumbai airport)
  3. How long have you lived in this village?

2. आपण सामुहिक कार्य आणि दुकाने/काम करण्याच्या जागा याबद्दल बोलताना वापरतो.

उदा.

  1. Did you see Shobha at the party?
  2. There weren't many people at the meeting.
  3. I saw him at the baker's.

3. आपण रस्त्यांच्या नावाबरोबर in आणि घराचा नंबर देताना at वापरतो.

उदा.

  1. He lives in Church Street.
  2. He lives at 45 Church Street.

4. आपण एखाधा ठिकाणाचा पृष्ठभाग म्हणून विचार करताना on वापरतो.

उदा.

  1. The dog is lying on the floor.
  2. Put this picture on the wall.

5. काळासाठी Till आणि स्थानासाठी to वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. He slept till eight o'clock.
  2. He walked to the end of the street.

6. बर्‍याचवेळा 'With' हे साधनाचा उल्लेख करते आणि by हे क्रिया करण्याच्या निर्देश करते.

उदा.

  1. He killed two birds with one shot.
  2. He was stabbed by a lunatic with a dagger.

7. Since हे विशिष्ट वेळ दर्शविणारे नाम किंवा सर्वनाम यांच्या आधी वापरतात आणि since च्या आधी पूर्ण काळातील क्रियापद येते.

उदा.

  1. I have eaten nothing since yesterday.
  2. He has been ill since Monday last.
  3. I have not been smoking since last week.

8. कालखंड दर्शविणारे नाम किंवा सर्वनाम यांच्या आधीच्या in चा अर्थ असतो कालखंडाच्या अखेरीस within म्हणजे कालखंड संपण्यापूर्वी;

उदा.

I shall return in an hour. I shall return within an hour.

9. Beside म्हणजे (by the side of) च्या शेजारी तर besides म्हणजे च्यात भर म्हणून (त्याशिवाय)

उदा.

  1. Besides च्या जागेवर beside चा वापर करू नये.   
  2. Beside the ungathered rice he lay.
  3. Besides his children, there were present his nephews and nieces.
  4. Besides being fined, he was sentenced to a term of imprisonment.
  • 'Than' हा शब्द उभयान्वयी अव्यय (Conjunction) असतो पण, कधीकधी त्याचा उपयोग शब्दयोगी म्हणनही वापर केला जातो.

उदा.

  1. I cannot accept less than forty rupees for this article.
  2. I speak of Shakespeare, than whom there is none greater as a dramatist.

  • नियमानुसार, 'but' उभयान्वयी अव्यय असते पण, जेव्हा ते शब्दयोगी अव्ययासारखे वापरले जाते तेव्हा त्याचा अर्थ होतो -

  • याशिवाय (except) 'या व्यतिरिक्त' (with the exception of')
  1. What can he do but die?
  2. All our ambitions death defeats, but one.
  3. None but the brave deserves the fair.
  4. She returned all his gifts but one.
  5. All is lost but honour.

  • A: खालील वाक्यांतील 'a' हा शब्द 'on' शब्दयोगीचे कमकुवत रूप (weakend form) आहे.
  1. Her wages are ten rupees a day. I meet him once a week.
  2. Sugar is twenty-five paise a seer.
  3. How could did they drive their team a-field.
  4. They went a-board the ship.

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