धातुसाधिते व त्याचे उपयोग

Category: English (ईंग्रजी) Published on 29 January 2016
Written by Shital Burkule Hits: 2426

धातुसाधिते व त्याचे उपयोग

  • खालील वाक्य वाचा -

  • Hearing the noise, the boy woke up.

  • ज्याप्रमाणे विशेषण नामाबद्दल अधिक माहिती देते - त्याचप्रमाणे येथे 'hearing' हा शब्द 'boy' या नामाबद्दल अधिक माहिती देतो.

  • हे 'hear' या क्रियापदापासून तयार केलेले रूप आहे व ते कर्माला नियंत्रित करते.

  • म्हणजेच 'hearing' हा शब्द क्रियापद व विशेषण या दोहोंचा स्वभाव अंगीकारतो व त्याला धातुसाधित म्हणतात. त्याला क्रियावाचक विशेषण (Verbal Adjective) असेही म्हणता येईल.

  • व्याख्या - धातुसाधित (participle) हे क्रियापदाचे असे रूप असते जे क्रियापद व विशेषण या दोहोंचा स्वभाव अंगीकारते किंवा धातुसाधित हा असा शब्द आहे जो अंशत: क्रियापद आणि अंशत: विशेषण आहे.

  • टीप - धातुसाधिताने सुरुवात केलेल्या 'hearing a noise' या वाक्यांशाला धातुसाधित वाक्यांश (Participle pharase) असे म्हणतात. याच्या वापरानुसार येथे हा विशेषण वाक्यांश (Adjective Phrase) आहे.

  • खालील धातुसाधितांची उदाहरणे अभ्यासा
  1. We met a girl corrying a basket of flowers.
  2. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.
  3. The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
  4. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell.

  • वर्तमानकाळवाचक धातुसाधित (Present Participle) विशेषणांच्या रूपांची उदाहरणे वर दिली आहेत, त्यांचा शेवट i ने होतो. ही 'चालू', 'अपुर्‍या' किंवा अपूर्ण क्रिया दाखवितात.

  • पहिल्या वाक्याप्रमाणे ही रुपे सकर्मक (Transitive) क्रियापदाची असल्यास त्याला कर्म लागते.

  • दुसर्‍या वाक्यात क्रिया विशेषणाने धातुसाधिताच्या अर्थात बदल झाला आहे. हेदेखील लक्षात घ्या.

  • वर्तमानकाळवाचक धातुसाधिता व्यतिरिक्त प्रत्येक क्रियापदापासून आपण दुसर्‍या प्रकारचे धातुसाधित रुप करू शकतो. ज्याला भूतकाळवाचक धातुसाधित म्हणतात. हे ज्याविषयी बोलत आहोत त्या वस्तूची स्थिती किंवा पूर्ण क्रिया दाखविते.

  • भूतकाळवाचक धातुसाधित रूपांची उदाहरणे खालीलप्रमाणे आहेत.

  1. Blinded by a dust storm, they fell into disorder.
  2. Deceived by his friends, he lost all hope.
  3. Time misspent is time lost.
  4. Driven by hunger, he stole a piece of bread.
  5. We saw a few trees laden with fruit.

  • असे दिसून येते की, भूतकाळवाचक धातुसाधिताच्या शेवटी नेहमी : - ed, -d, -t, -en, किंवा -n येतो.

  • वर्तमानकाळवाचक आणि भूतकाळ वाचक धातुसाधिताशिवाय एक एक पूर्वकाळवाचक धातुसाधितही असतो ज्याला Perfect Participle म्हणतात. हा कर्म भूतकाळात कधी तरी पूर्ण झाला आहे,

  • जसे -Having rested, we continued our nourney.

  • खालील उदाहरणांत धातुसाधितांचा वापर नामापूर्वी झाला आहे आणि हे सामान्य वैशिष्टय दाखविणाच्या विशेषणासारखा आहे आणि म्हणूनच या प्रकारच्या वापरात हे विशेषणात्मक धातुसाधित (Ajectival Participle) किंवा कृदंतीय विशेषण (Participle Adjectives) म्हणून ओळखले जातात.

  1. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  2. We had a drink of the sparkling water.
  3. His tattered coat needs mending.
  4. The creaking door awakened the dog.
  5. A lying witness ought to be punished.
  6. He played a losing game.
  7. A burnt child dreads the fire.
  8. His finished manners produced a very favourable impression.
  9. He wears a worried look.
  10. Education is the most pressing need of our country.
  11. He was reputed to be the most learned man of his time.

  • शेवटच्या दोन उदाहरणांवरून असे लक्षात येईल की, धातुसाधित हे तुलनात्मक भावही (degrees of Comparison) दाखवू शकते.

  • विशेषणांप्रमाणे वापरल्यास भूतकाळवाचक धातुसाधित (Past Participle) अर्थांनुसार कर्मणी (Passive) असते तर वर्तमानकाळवाचक धातुसाधित (Present Participle) अर्थांनुसार कर्तरी असते.

उदा.

  1. a spent swimmer = a seimmer who is tried out; = थकलेला पट्टीचा पोहणारा
  2. a burnt child = a child who is burnt; = जळालेला मुलगा
  3. a painted doll = a doll which is painted; = रंगविलेली बाहुली
  4. a rolling stone = a stone which rolls. = घसरत असलेला गोटा

  • आपण धतुसाधिताविषयी जे काही शिकलो त्याची उजळणी करू या :

1. धातुसाधित हे क्रियावाचक विशेषण (Verbal Adjective) असते.

2. क्रियापदाप्रमाणे हे नाम किंवा सर्वनामाला नियंत्रित करू शकते.

उदा.  

  1. Hearing the noise, the boy woke up. [The noun noise is governed by the participle Hearing].

3. क्रियापदाप्रमाणे याचा अर्थ क्रियाविशेषणाने अधिक स्पष्ट होतो.

उदा.

  1. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.

[Here the participle knocking is modified by the adverb Loudly.]

 

4. विशेषणाप्रमाणे हे नाम किंवा सर्वनामाबद्दल अधिक माहिती देते.

उदा.

  1. Having rested, the men continued their journey.

5. विशेषणाप्रमाणे याची तुलना करता येऊ शकते.

उदा.

  1. Education is the most pressing need of our time.

[Here the participle pressing is compared by prefixing most.]

  • विविध धातुसाधितांची रुपे खाली दाखविली आहेत.

कर्तरी (Active)                   कर्मणी (Passive)

Present : loving              Present : being loved.

Perfect : having loved    Perfect : having been loved.

                                        Past : loved.

धातुसाधितांचा वापर (USE OF THE PARTICIPLE) :

  • असे लक्षात येईल की, चालू काळ (Continuous Tenses) (कर्तरी प्रयोग = Active Voice) हे वर्तमानकाळवाचक धातुसाधिते (Persent Participle) आणि 'to be' या क्रियापदाची काळानुसाराची रुपे यांनी तयार होतात.

उदा.

I am loving     I was loving     I shall be loving        

 

  • पूर्णकाळ (Perfect Tenses) कर्तरी प्रयोग (Active Voice) हे भूतकाळवाचक धातुसाधिते (Past Participle) व 'to have' या क्रियापदांची काळानुसाराची रुपे यांनी तयार होतात.

I have love     I had loved I shall have loved

 

  • कर्मणी प्रयोग (Passive Voice) ही भूतकाळवाचक धातुसाधिते (Past Participle) व 'to be' या क्रियापदाची काळानुसाराची रुपे यांनी तयार होतात.

उदा.

I am loved     I was loved     I shall be loved.

 

  • आपण असे पाहिजे की, धातुसाधिते; नाम व सर्वनाम यांबद्दल अधिक माहिती देतात. ती खालीलप्रमाणे वापरतात.

1. गुणवाचक म्हणून (Attributively) म्हणून

उदा.

  1. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  2. His tattered coat needs mending.
  3. A lost opportunity never returns.

2. विधेयदर्शी (Predicatively) म्हणून

उदा.

  1. The man seems worried. (Modifying the Subject)
  2. He kept me waitting. (Midifying the Object.)

3. अगोदर येणारे नाम किंवा सर्वनाम यांच्याबरोबर स्वतंत्रपणे (Absolutely)

उदा.

  1. The weather being fine, I went out.
  2. Many having arrived, we were freed from anxiety.
  3. Weather permitting, there will be a garden party at Government House tomorrow.
  4. God willing, we shall have another good monsoon.
  5. The sea being smooth, we went for sail.
  6. The wind having failed, the crew set to work with a will.
  7. His master being absent, the business was neglected.
  8. The wind being favourable, they embarked.

  • असे दिसून येईल की, वरील प्रत्येक वाक्यात धातुसाधित त्याच्या आधी आलेले नाम किंवा सर्वनाम यांच्याबरोबर उरलेल्या वाक्यापेक्षा स्वयंसिद्ध असा वाक्यांश तयार करते.

  • अशा वाक्यांशाला स्वयंसिद्ध वाक्यांश (Absolute Phrase) म्हणतात; आणि अशाप्रकारे धातुसाधिताबरोबर वापरलेल्या नाम किंवा सर्वनामाला स्वयंसिद्धकर्ता (Nominative Absolute) असे म्हणतात.
  • स्वयंसिद्ध वाक्यांश (Absolute Phrase) सहजपणे गौण उपवाक्यात (Subordinate Clause) बदलता येते.

उदा.

  1. Spring advancing, the swallows appear. [When spring advances.-Clause of Time.]
  2. The sea being smooth, we went for a sail. [Because the sea was smooth-Clause of Reason.]
  3. God willing. we shall meet again. [If God is willing.-Clause of Condition.]

धातुसाधितांचा चुकीचा उपयोग (ERRORS IN THE USE OF PARTICIPLES) :

  • धातुसाधिते हे क्रियाविशेषण धातुसाधित (Verb adjective) असल्यामुळे ते एखाधा नामाला किंवा सर्वनामाशी संलग्न असावे लागते. दुसर्‍या शब्दात त्याला नेहमीच संदर्भासाठी योग्य तो कर्ता (Subject of reference) असावा लागतो.

  • खालील वाक्ये चुकीची आहेत. कारण प्रत्येक बाबतीत धातुसाधित हे योग्य संदर्भाशिवाय वापलेले आहे.

  1. Standing at the gate, a scorpion stung him. (As it is, the sentence reads as if the scorpion was standing at the gate.)
  2. Going up the hill, an old temple was seen.
  3. Entering the room, the light was quite dazzling.

  • म्हणून आपण ही वाक्ये खाली दाखविल्याप्रमाणे पुनर्रचित करावयास हवीत -

1.Standing at the gate, he was stung by a scorpion.

   Or: While he was standing at the gate, a scorpion stung him.

2.When we went up the hill, we saw an old temple.

3. Entering the room, I found the light quite dazzling.

   Or: When I entered the room, the light was quite dazzling.

 

  • काही बाबतीत रूढीनुसार संदर्भासाठीच्या कर्त्याशिवाय धातुसाधित वापरुन केलेल्या रचना संमत आहेत. अशा बाबतीत वापरलेल्या धातुसाधिताला भाववाचक स्वयंसिद्ध (Impersonal Absolute) म्हणतात.

  1. Taking evrything into consideration, teh Magistrate was perfectly justified in issuing those orders.
  2. Considering his abilities, he should have done better.
  3. Roughly speaking, the distance from here to the nearest railway station is two miles.

  • असे लक्षात येईल की, वरील उदाहरणांमध्ये अव्यक्त कर्ता अनिश्चित आहे.

उदा.

  1. 'Roughly speaking'= If one speaks roughly.

  • खालील उदाहरणांमध्ये दाखविल्याप्रमाणे कधीकधी धातुसाधित हे अध्याहत असते.
  1. Sword (being) in hand, he rushed on the jailor.
  2. Breakfast (having been) over, we went out for a walk.

All Latest Jobs

Amaravati Convergence of Agricultural Interventions in Maharashtra Bharti 2017 For 12 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Center for Marine Living Resources and Ecology Bharti 2017 For 45 Posts (Last Date : 26 July 2017)

Indian Coast Guard Bharti 2017 For 45 Posts (Last Date : 2 July 2017)

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India Bharti 2017 For 13 Posts (Last Date : 24 July 2017)

Akola Health Department Jilha Parishad Bharti 2017 For 17 Posts (Last Date : 3 July 2017)

Catholic Syrian Bank Bharti 2017 For 154 Posts (Last Date : 26 July 2017)

Jalgaon Jilha Gramin Vikas Yantrana Bharti 2017 For 15 Posts (Last Date : 6 July 2017)

Solapur University Bharti 2017 For 36 Posts (Interview Date : 5,6 July 2017)

Mumbai Bhabha Atomic Research Center Bharti 2017 For 7 Posts (Last Date : 17 July 2017)

Haryana Health Department Bharti 2017 For 662 Posts (Last Date : 17 July 2017)

Odisha Postal Circle Bharti 2017 For 144 Posts (Last Date : 22 July 2017)

Yavatmal Jilha Parishad Bharti 2017 For 13 Posts (Last Date : 10 July 2017)

Mumbai Kamgar Ayukta Bharti 2017 For 7 Posts (Last Date : 7 July 2017)

Southern Railway Bharti 2017 For 658 Posts (Last Date : 15 July 2017)

Kolhapur Shri Swami Vivekanand Shikshan Sanstha Bharti 2017 For 166 Posts (Interview Date : 27, 28, 29 and 30 June 2017)

Mumbai Abhyudaya Co-Op. Bank Bharti 2017 For 12 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Mumbai Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (SPIT) Bharti 2017 For 23 Posts (Last Date : 7 July 2017)

Jalgaon Jilha General Hospital Bharti 2017 For 10 Posts (Last Date : 5 July 2017)

Nandurbar Jilha Parishad Bharti 2017 For 29 Posts (Last Date : 1 July 2017)

Gondia Jilha Parishad Bharti 2017 For 2 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University Bharti 2017 For 35 Posts (Last Date : 5 July 2017)

Pune Film and Television Institute of India Bharti 2017 For 10 Posts (Interview Date : 4 July 2017)

Airports Authority of India Bharti 2017 For 105 Posts (Last Date : 19 July 2017)

Akola Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth Bharti 2017 (Last Date : 25 July 2017)

Delhi Sasthastra Seema Bal Bharti 2017 For 355 Posts (Last Date : 19 July 2017)

Bombay High Court Bharti 2017 For 108 Posts (Last Date : 4 July 2017)

Indian Audit and Accounts Department Bharti 2017 For 170 Posts (Last Date : 20 July 2017)

New Delhi High Court Bharti 2017 For 192 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Mumbai Water And Sanitation Support Organization Bharti 2017 For 6 Posts (Last Date : 23 June 2017)

Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company LimitedBharti 2017 For 26 Posts (Last Date : 6 July 2017)

Mumbai State Project Implementation Unit Bharti 2017 For 1 Post (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Mumbai NABARD Bharti 2017 For 117 Posts (Last Date : 7 July 2017)

Mumbai Securities and Exchange Board of India Bharti 2017 For 2 Posts (Last Date : 7 July 2017)

Pune Ordnance Depot Khadki Bharti 2017 For 18 Posts (Last Date : 7 July 2017)

Pune Ministry of Defence Group C Bharti 2017 For 22 Posts (Last Date : 7 July 2017)

Pune Mahangarpalika Shikshan Bharti 2017 For 175 Posts (Last Date : 22 June 2017)

Pune Centre for Development of Advanced Computing Bharti 2017 For 13 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Mumbai Indian Coast Guard Region (West) Bharti 2017 For 15 Posts (Last Date : 15 July 2017)

Damanjodi National Aluminium Company Limited Bharti 2017 For 330 Posts (Last Date : 1 July 2017)

Mumbai Planning Department Bharti 2017 For 50 Posts (Last Date : 22 June 2017)

Mumbai ICMR-NIRRH Bharti 2017 For 3 Posts (Interview Date : 23, 28,30 June 2017)

Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation Bharti 2017 For 51 Posts (Last Date : 21 June 2017)

Maharashtra Water Conservation Department Bharti 2017 For 12 Posts (Last Date : 27 June 2017)

Air India Engineering Services Limited Bharti 2017 For 94 Posts (Interview Date : 28, 29, 30 June 2017)

Chattisgarh National Rural Health Mission Bharti 2017 For 84 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Maharashtra State Police Force Bharti 2017 For 322 Posts (Last Date : 4 July 2017)

Allahabad High Court Bharti 2017 For 1955 Posts (Last Date : 3 July 2017)

Moga District And Sessions Judge Bharti 2017 For 5 Posts (Last Date : 20 June 2017)

Delhi Principal Chief Commissioner of Income Tax Bharti 2017 For 58 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Parliament of India Bharti 2017 For 28 Posts (Last Date : 10 July 2017)

Pune Command Hospital Bharti 2017 For 42 Posts (Last Date : 8 July 2017)

Hyderabad Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited Bharti 2017 For 15 Posts (Last Date : 24 June 2017)

National Health Systems Resource Centre Bharti 2017 For 8 Posts (Last Date : 1 July 2017)

Bank Of Maharashtra Bharti 2017 For 450 Posts (Last Date : 24 June 2017)

Dhule Art Commerce BCA Women College Bharti 2017 For 35 Posts (Last Date : 24 June 2017)

The Ahmednagar District Central Co–Operative Bank Limited Bharti 2017 For 459 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Pune Defence Research And Development Origination Bharti 2017 For 4 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Madhya Pradesh Professional Examination Board Bharti 2017 For 14088 Posts (Last Date : 7 July 2017)

Pune National Centre for Cell Science Bharti 2017 For 2 Posts (Last Date : 10 July 2017)

Union Public Service Commission Bharti 2017 For 390 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Madhya Pradesh High Court Bharti 2017 For 2910 Posts (Last Date : 5 July 2017)

Medical Officer Selection Board Bharti 2017 For 661 Posts (Last Date : 6 July 2017)

Mumbai Bharat Petroleum Bharti 2017 For 32 Posts (Last Date : 26 June 2017)

Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited Bharti 2017 For 13 Posts (Last Date : 21 June 2017)

Shirdi Shri Saibaba Sansthan Trust Bharti 2017 For 515 Posts (Interview Date : 20-21st June 2017)

Visakhapatnam Eastern Naval Command Naval Base Bharti 2017 For 205 Posts (Last Date : 25 July 2017)

Aurangabad Indo German Tool Room Bharti 2017 For 19 Posts (Last Date : 26 June 2017)

Ministry of Defence Artillery Records Bharti 2017 For 15 Posts (Last Date : 21 June 2017)

Nagpur Customs Central Excise And Service Tax Bharti 2017 For 2 Posts (Last Date : 23 June 2017)

Haryana Staff Selection Commission Bharti 2017 For 5532 Posts (Last Date : 11 July 2017)

Nagpur Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited Bharti 2017 For 15 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

National Highway Authority of India Bharti 2017 For 40 Posts (Last Date : 31 July 2017)

Pune Defence Institute of Advanced Technology Bharti 2017 For 5 Posts (Last Date : 20 June 2017)

Mumbai Commissioner of Police Bharti 2017 For 49 Posts (Last Date : 20 June 2017)

Mumbai SNDT Women’s University Bharti 2017 For 12 Posts (Last Date : 23 June 2017)

Parbhani Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agricultural University Bharti 2017 For 16 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Mumbai Shipping Corporation of India Limited Bharti 2017 For 50 Posts (Last Date : 25 June 2017)

Vigyan Prasar Bharti 2017 For 6 Posts (Last Date : 30 June 2017)

Bhubaneswar All India Institute of Medical Science Bharti 2017 For 1212 Posts (Last Date : 28 June 2017)

माहिती मिळवा ईमेल वर

Study Material आणि नवीन नौकर्‍यांची माहिती मिळविण्यासाठी खालील माहिती भरा.

Login Box

Or sign in with your account on:

Not a member yet? Register

Like Our Facebook Page

Latest Users

  • Sruthishilpalic
  • 318740411914289@facebook
  • 536466773190647@facebook
  • Shubham Naglot
  • 1294633873967733@facebook