क्रियावाचक नाम व त्याचे उपयोग

Category: English (ईंग्रजी) Published on 30 January 2016
Written by Shital Burkule Hits: 1628

क्रियावाचक नाम व त्याचे उपयोग

  • खालील वाक्य वाचा -

  • Reading is his favourite pastime.

  • इथे read क्रियेला ing लावून Reading शब्द बनला आहे.

  • या ठिकाणी याचा उपयोग क्रियेच्या कर्त्याप्रमाणे झाला असल्यामुळे तो नामाचे कार्य करतो. म्हणून हे क्रियावाचक नाम (GERUND) आहे. त्याची आणखी उदाहरणे पाहू या -

  1. Playing cards is not allowed here.
  2. I like reading poetry.
  3. He is fond of hoarding money.

  • पहिल्या वाक्यात क्रियावाचक नाम क्रियेचा कर्ता आहे, पण त्याचसोबत कर्मसुद्धा आहे. म्हणून क्रियेचे कामही करतो.

  • दुसर्‍या वाक्यातही नामाप्रमाणेच क्रियावाचक नाम क्रियेचे कर्म आहे.

  • तिसर्‍या वाक्यात नामाप्रमाणे क्रियावाचक नाम अव्ययासोबत आहे पण तरीही क्रियेप्रमाणे याचेही कर्म आहे.

  • असे दिसते की, क्रियार्थक नाम (Infinitive) आणि क्रियावाचक नाम (Gerund) दोन्ही नामाप्रमाणे वापरल्यास सारखेच असते.

  • परिभाषा - क्रियावाचक नाम (Gerund) क्रियेचे असे रूप आहे. ज्याच्या शेवटी-ing असते. जे नाम आणि क्रिया असे दोन्हीचे काम करते.

  • क्रियावाचक नाम आणि क्रियार्थक नाम दोन्ही नाम आणि क्रियेचे काम करतात. म्हणून दोघांचा प्रयोग सारखाच होतो.

जसे -

  1. Teach me to swim.        
  2. To see is to believe.
  3. Teach me swimming.     
  4. Seeing is believing
  5. To give is better than to receive.
  6. Giving is better than receiving.

  • खालील वाक्य संयुक्त क्रियावाचक नामाची (Compound Gerund)

उदाहरणे -

  1. I heard of his having gained a prize.
  2. We were fatigued o account of having walked so far.
  3. They were charged with having sheltered anarchists.
  4. He is desirous of being praised.

  • असे दिसते की, have आणि be च्या रुपानंतर भूतकालिक धातुसाधिते (Past Participle) वापरुन बनविले जाते.

  • सकर्मक क्रियेच्या क्रियावाचक नामाची खालील रुपे आहेत.

Active                             Passive

Present: loving             Present: being loved

Perfect: having loved     Perfect: having been loved

 

  • क्रियावाचक नाम आणि वर्तमानकाळ वाचक धातुसाधिते दोघांच्या शेवटी ing येते. म्हणून लक्षपूर्वक दोघांमधील भेद लक्षात घ्यावयास हवा.

    क्रियावाचक नाम (Gerund) नाम आणि क्रिया दोघांचे काम करते. हे Verbal Noun आहे.

  • वर्तमानकाळ वाचक धातुसाधिते (Persent Participle) विशेषण आणि क्रियेचे कार्य करते. हे Verble Adjective आहे.

  1. He is fond of playing cricket.
  2. The old man was tired of walking.
  3. We were prevented from seeing the prisoner.
  4. Seeing, he believed.

धातुसाधित उदाहरणे -

  1. Playing cricket, he gained health.
  2. Walking along the road, he noticed a dead cobra.
  3. Seeing, he believed.

  • खालील वाक्य वाचा -

  • The indiscriminate reading of novels is injurious.

  • इथे Reading चा उपयोग साधारण नामाप्रमाणे झाला आहे.

  • यात आधी the चा आणि नंतर of चा प्रयोग केलेला आहे.

  • साधारण नामाप्रमाणे प्रयुक्त क्रियावाचक नामाची आणखी उदाहरणे -

  1. The making of the plan is in hand.
  2. The time of the singing of the birds has come.
  3. Adam consented to the eating of the fruit.
  4. The middle station of life seems to be the most advantageously situated for the gaining of wisdom.

  • खालील प्रकाराच्या संयुक्त नामात -
  1. walking-stick    
  2. frying-pan    
  3. hunting-wnip,
  4. fencing-stick,    
  5. writing-table.

  • walking, frying, hunting, fencing, writing क्रियावाचक नाम (Gerunds) आहेत.

  • याचा अर्थ आहे 'a stick of walking', 'a pan for frying', 'a whip for hunting', 'a stick for fencing', आणि 'a table for writing.'

  • खालील दोन वाक्यांची तुलना करा -

  1. I hope you will excuse my leaving early.
  2. I hope you will excuse me leaving early.

  • पहिल्या वाक्यात क्रियावाचक नामा आधीचा शब्द संबंधसूचक आहे. आणि दुसर्‍या वाक्यात कर्मकारक आहे. दोन्ही वाक्ये शुद्ध आहेत.

  • दोन्ही प्रकारे प्रयोग करू शकतो. संबंधसूचक जास्त औपचारिक आहे. रोजच्या वापरात त्याचा कमी उपयोग होतो.

  • पुढे दुसरी काही उदाहरणे दिलेली आहेत.

  1. We rejoiced at his/him being promoted.
  2. I insist on you-/youbeing present.
  3. Do you mind my/me sitting here?
  4. All depends of Karim's/Karim passing the exam.
  5. I disliked the manager's/mavager asking me personal questions.
  6. The accident was due to the engine-driver's/engine-driver disregarding the singnals.

क्रियावाचक नामाचा उपयोग (USE OF THE GERUND) :

  • Verb-noun असल्यामुळे याचा उपयोग खालीलप्रमाणे होऊ शकतो.

1. क्रियेचा कर्ता;

उदा.

  1. Seeing is believing.
  2. Hunting deer is not allowed in this country.

2. सकर्मक क्रियेचे कर्म,

उदा.

  1. Stop playing.
  2. Children love making mud castles.
  3. I like reading poetry.
  4. He contemplated marrying his cousin.  

3. संबंध सुचकाचे (Preposition) कर्म,

उदा.

  1. I am tired of waiting.
  2. He is fond of swimming.
  3. He ws punished for telling a lie.
  4. We were prevented from seeing the prisoner.
  5. I have an aversion to fishing.

4. क्रियेचे पूरक (Complement),

उदा.

  1. Seeing is believing.
  2. What I most detest is smoking.

5. निरपेक्ष (absolutely),

उदा.  

  1. Plyaing cards being his aversion, we did not play bridge.

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