अनियमित क्रियापदे व त्याचे प्रकार

Category: English (ईंग्रजी) Published on 31 January 2016
Written by Shital Burkule Hits: 2838

अनियमित क्रियापदे व त्याचे प्रकार

  • क्रियापदे दोन प्रकारची असू शकतात- नियमित किंवा अनियमित.

  • नियमित क्रियापदांना (Regular Verb) -ed हा प्रत्यय लावून त्याचे भूतकाळ (Past Tense) आणि भूतकाळ वाचक धातुसाधित (Past participle) रूप बनवितात.

मुळरूप            भूतकाळ           भूतकाळ वाचक धातुसाधित

Base Form    Past Tense     Past Perticple

walk             walked               walked     

laugh           laughed              laughed     

paint            painted              painted     
    

  • अनियमित क्रियापदांना (irregular verbs) -ed हा प्रत्यय न लावता वेगळ्या पद्धतीने भूतकाळ आणि भूतकाळ वाचक धातुसाधित (Past participle) रूप बनवितात.

मूळरूप              भूतकाळ         भूतकाळ वाचक धातुसाधित

Bass Form    Past Tense         Past Participle

sit                   sat                       sat

ring                rang                    rung

come              came                come

cut                  cut                      cut

  • अनियमित क्रियापदांचे तीन प्रकार आहेत.

1. अशी क्रियापदे ज्यांची तिन्ही रुपे एक सारखी आहेत.

जसे- (cut, cut, cut)

2. अशी क्रियापदे ज्यांची तीनपैकी दोन रुपे सारखी आहेत.

जसे- (sit - sat - sat)

3. अशी क्रियापदे ज्यांची तिन्ही रुपे भिन्न आहेत.

जसे- (Ring - rang - rung)

 

  • वर नमूद केल्याप्रमाणे अनियमित क्रियापदांची यादी तीन प्रकरात विभागून दिलेली आहे. त्यापैकी काही नियमित देखील असू शकतात. अशावेळी नियमित रूपेसुद्धा दिली आहेत.

प्रकार 1 - तिन्ही रुपे समान असलेली.

उदा.

मूलरूप                 भूतकाळ             भूतकाळ वाचक धातूसाधित

Base Form     Past Tense         Past Participle

bet                      bet                       bet

burst                  burst                    burst

cost                    cost                     cost

cut                      cut                       cut

hit                       hit                        hit

hurt                   hurt                       hurt

 

प्रकार 2 - दोन रुपे समान असलेली.

उदा.

मूळरूप                 भूतकाळ           भूतकाळ वाचक धातुसाधित

Base Form     Past Tense        Past Participle

beat                     beat                   beaten

become              become               become

bend                   bent                     bent

bleed                   bled                     bled

breed                  bred                     bred

bring                 brought               brought

build                    built                    built

 

प्रकार 3 - तिन्ही रुपे वेगवेगळी -

उदा.

मूळरूप                 भूतकाळ           भूतकाळ वाचक धातुसाधित

Base Form     Past Tense         Past Participle

be                   was/were                been

begin                 began                   begun

bite                     bit                       bitten

blow                   blew                   blown

break                 broke                 broken

 

  • खालील क्रियापदांना वैकल्पिक (alternative) भूतकाळ वाचक धातुसाधित रुपे ('en' ने शेवट होणारी आहेत) जी फक्त विशेषणाप्रमाणे वापरता येऊ शकतात.

Verb            Usual Past            Adjectival

                    Participle          Past Participle

drink               drunk                  drunken

melt               melted                  molten

prove             proved                  proven

shave             shaved                 shaven

choose            chose                chosen

 

  • तुलना करा.

    (A)                                                 (B)

He has drunk liquor.                       a drunken soldier    

The iron hs melted.                        molten iron

He has proved it.                           a proven fact.

He has shaved off his bread.        a clean-shaven face

They have sheared the sheep.      a shorn sheep.

The cloth has shrunk.                    a shrunken head    

The ship has sunk.                        a sunken ship

The clock has struck five.             a grief-stricken widow

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