काळाची ओळख

Category: English (ईंग्रजी) Published on 15 January 2016
Written by Shital Burkule Hits: 4049

काळाची ओळख

Must Read (नक्की वाचा):
अर्थ व त्याचे प्रकार
  • खालील वाक्ये वाचा. -

1. I write this letter to please you.

2. I wrote the letter in his very presence.

3. I shall write another letter tomorrow.

 

  • पहिल्या वाक्यात 'write' हे क्रियापद वर्तमानकाळाचा (Present time) उल्लेख करते.

  • दुसर्‍या वाक्यात 'wrote' हे क्रियापद भूतकाळाचा (past time) उल्लेख करते.

  • तिसर्‍या वाक्यात 'shall write' हे क्रियापद भविष्यकाळाचा (Future time) उल्लेख करते.

  • अशाप्रकारे क्रियापद खालील गोष्टींचा उल्लेख करते.

1. वर्तमानकाळाचा (Present time)

2. भूतकाळचा (Psat time)

3. भविष्यकाळाचा (Future time)

 

  • वर्तमानकाळाचा उल्लेख करणारे क्रियापद हे वर्तमानकाळात (present tense) आहे असे म्हणतात.

  • जसे -
  1. I write
  2. I love

  • ('tense' हा शब्द लॅटीन tempus - वेळ पासून आला आहे.)

  • भूतकाळाचा उल्लेख करणारे क्रियापद हे भूतकाळात (past time) आहे असे म्हणतात.    

  • जसे -
  1. I wrote            
  2. I loved.

  • भविष्यकाळाचा उल्लेख करणारे क्रियापद हे भविष्यकाळात (Future Time) आहे असे म्हणतात.
  1. I shall write         
  2. I shall love.
  • अशाप्रकारे प्रमुख काल तीन आहेत.

  • वर्तमान (Present), भूत (Past), भविष्य (Future)

  • क्रियापदाचा काळ एखाधा क्रियेची किंवा घटनेची वेळ दाखवितो.

  • टीप -कधीकधी भविष्यकाळ वर्तमानाचा संदर्भ देऊ शकतो आणि वर्तमानकाळ, भविष्यकाळ व्यक्त करू शकतो.

  • जसे -
  1. I wish I knew the answer. (=I'm sorry I don't know the answer, Past tense - Present time)
  2. Let's wait till he comes. (Present tense - future tense)

  • 'To love' या क्रियापदाची प्रमुख तीन काळातील रुपे खालीलप्रमाणे कर्तरी प्रयोग विधानार्थ (Active Voice, Indicative Mood)

                                                वर्तमानकाळ (Present Tense)        

                                                  एकवचन                    अनेकवचन

                                              Singular Number      Plural Number

1st Person (प्रथम पुरुष)                       I love                  We love         

2nd Person (व्दितीय पुरुष)                   You love              You love  

3rd Person (तृतीय पुरुष)                     He loves              They love

                                                 भूतकाळ (Past Tense)        

                                                 एकवचन                    अनेकवचन

                                            Singular Number        Plural Number

1st Person (प्रथम पुरुष)                    I loved                    We loved

2nd Person (व्दितीय पुरुष)                You loved                You loved

3rd Person (तृतीय पुरुष)                  He loved                  They loved

                                         भविष्यकाळ (Future Tense)     

                                               एकवचन                      अनेकवचन

                                            Singular Number         Plural Number

1st Person (प्रथम पुरुष)              I shall/will love             We shall/will love

2nd Person (व्दितीय पुरुष)           You will love                You will love

3rd Person (तृतीय पुरुष)              He will love                 They will love

 

  • ही वाक्ये वाचा -

1. I love                         (Simple Present)                  (साधा वर्तमानकाळ)             

2. I am loving              (Present Continuous)           (अपूर्ण चालू वर्तमानकाळ)

3. I have loved               (Present Perfect)                  (पूर्ण वर्तमानकाळ)

4. I have been loving  (Present Perfect Continuous)   (चालू पूर्ण वर्तमानकाळ)

 

  • वरील वाक्यांतील सर्व क्रियापदे वर्तमानकाळाचा संदर्भ देतात म्हणून ती वर्तमानकाळात आहेत असे म्हणतात. परंतु पहिल्या वाक्यात क्रियापद क्रियेच्या पूर्णत्वाविषयी किंवा अपूर्णत्वाविषयी काही न सांगता फक्त क्रियेचा उल्लेख करते. दुसर्‍या वाक्यात, क्रियापद अपूर्ण किंवा चालू क्रियेचा उल्लेख करते. म्हणजेच जी क्रिया अजूनही चालूच आहे.

  • तिसर्‍या वाक्यात क्रियापद (वाक्य) बोलताना पूर्ण असलेल्या, संपलेल्या किंवा परिपूर्ण क्रियेचा उल्लेख करते. चौथ्या वाक्यातील क्रियापदाच्या काळाला Present Perfect Continuous (चालू पूर्ण वर्तमानकाळ) असे म्हणतात. कारण हे क्रियापद असे दाखविते की क्रिया सतत चालूच आहे आणि आत्ताच्या क्षणापर्यंत पूर्ण झालेली नाही.

  • अशाप्रकारे आपल्याला असे दिसते की, क्रियापदाचा काळ फक्त क्रिया किंवा घटनेचा काळच दाखवत नाही तर (क्रियापदाने) दर्शविलेल्या क्रियेच्या स्थितीचादेखील उल्लेख करते.

  • वर्तमानकाळाप्रमाणेच भूतकाळाचीदेखील खालीलप्रमाणे चार रुपे आहेत.

1. I loved                   (Simple Future)(साधा भविष्यकाळ)

2. I was loving            (Future Continuous)(चालू भविष्यकाळ)

3. I had loved             (Fuutre Perfect)(पूर्ण भविष्यकाळ)

4. I had been Loving   (Future Perfect Continuous)(चालू पूर्ण भविष्यकाळ)

 

  • अशाच प्रकारे भविष्यकाळाची खालीलप्रमाणे चार रुपे आहेत.

1. I shall/will love                 (Simple Future)(साधा भविष्यकाळ)

2. I shall/will be loving          (Future Continuous)(चालू भविष्यकाळ)

3. I shall/will hove loved       (Future Perfect)(पूर्ण भविष्यकाळ)

4. I shall have been loving    (Future Perfect Continuous)(चालू पूर्ण भविष्यकाळ)

  • आता आपल्याला काळाची व्याख्या अशी करता येईल की काळ (Tense) म्हणजे क्रियापदाचे असे रूप जे एखधा क्रियेची किंवा घटनेची (time) वेळ आणि अवस्था (state) दाखविते.

  • क्रियापद त्याच्या कर्त्याच्या वचन आणि पुरुषाप्रमाणे चालते.

  • विविध काळातील क्रियापदाची रुपे अभ्यासा :-

Simple Present Tense          Present Continuous Tense

  1. I speak                                      I am speaking
  2. You speak                               You are speaking
  3. He speaks                                  He is speaking
  4. We speak                                We are speaking
  5. They speak                            They are speaking

Present Perfect Tense    Present Perfect Continuous Tense

  1. I have spoken                     I have been speaking
  2. You have spoken                You have been speaking
  3. He has spoken                   He has been speaking
  4. We have spoken                We have been speaking
  5. They have spoken              They have been speaking

Simple Past Tense        Past Continuous Tense

  1. I spoke                              I was speaking
  2. You spoke                         You were speaking
  3. He spoke                           He was speaking
  4. We spoke                         We were speaking  
  5. They spoke                       They were speaking

Past Perfect Tense         Past Perfect Continuous Tense

  1. I had spoken                     I had been speaking
  2. You had spoken               You had been speaking
  3. He had spoken                 He had been speaking
  4. We had spoken               We had been speaking
  5. They had spoken             They had been speaking

Simple Future Tense     Future Continuous Tense

  1. I shall/will speak              I shall/will be speaking
  2. You will speak                 You will be speaking
  3. He will speak                    He will be spaking
  4. We shaal/will speak        We shall/will be speaking
  5. They will speak               They will be speaking

Future Perfect Tense    Future Perfect Continouous Tense

  1. I shall/will have spoken        I shall/will have been speaking
  2. You will have spoken          You will have been speaking
  3. He will have spoken            He will have been speaking
  4. We shall/will have spoken   We shall/will have been speaking
  5. They will have spoken        They will have been speaking
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