सहाय्यकारी व अभिवृतिदर्शक क्रियापदे

Category: English (ईंग्रजी) Published on 31 January 2016
Written by Shital Burkule Hits: 4314

सहाय्यकारी व अभिवृतिदर्शक क्रियापदे

  • 'be' (am, is, was etc) have आणि do ही क्रियापदे जेव्हा सर्वसाधारण क्रियापदांबरोबर काळ, कर्मणी रुपे, प्रश्न न नाकारार्थ बनविण्यासाठी वापरतात तेव्हा त्यांना सहाय्यक क्रियापदे (auxiliary verbs) किंवा सहाय्यके (auxlliaries) म्हणतात. (Auxiliary = सहाय्यक)

  • Can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must आणि ought या क्रियापदांना अभिवृत्तीदर्शक क्रियापदे म्हणतात. (Modal verbs) ही सर्वसाधारण क्रियापदांच्या आधी वापरतात आणि ही परवानगी (permission), संभावना/शक्यता (Possibility), निश्चितता (certainty) आणि गरज (necessity) यांसारखे अर्थ व्यक्त करतात. Need आणि dare कधीकधी अभिवृत्तीदर्शक क्रियापदांप्रमाणे वापरता येतात.

  • अभिवृत्तीदर्शक क्रियापदे बर्‍याचदा सहाय्यकारी क्रियापदांच्या समूहात समाविष्ट असतात. काही व्याकरणांमध्ये त्यांना 'अभिवृत्तीदर्शक सहाय्यके' ("modal auxiliaries") असे म्हणतात.

  • Can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must आणि ought या अभिवृत्तीदर्शक क्रियापदांना सदोष क्रियापदे म्हणतात कारण त्यांमध्ये काही भाग कमी असतात. तृतीय पुरुषी एकवचनात त्यांना 's' लागत नाही. त्यांचे मूळ धातुरूप नसते व त्यांचे ing चे रूप होत नाही.

Be -

  • खालील गोष्टीमच्ये be हे सहाय्यकरी क्रियापद वापरतात.

1. चालू काळाची (Continuous tenses) रचना करताना.

उदा. He is working. I was writing.

 

2. कर्मणी प्रयोगाची (passive) रचना करताना,

उदा. The gate was opened.

 

1. खालील गोष्टींमध्ये 'be' व पुढे मूळ धातुरूप असे वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. I am to see him tomorrow.
  2. We are to be married next month.

2. आज्ञेचा निर्देश करण्यासाठी.

उदा.

  1. You are to write your name at the top of each sheet of paper.
  2. Mother says you are to go market at once.

  • एखादा करार जो ठरविला गेला परंतु पुढे अमलात आणला नाही, याचा निर्देश करण्याठी 'be' च्या भूतकाळचा वापर पूर्ण अनियंत्रित क्रियापदाबरोबर (Perfect infinitive) करतता.

उदा. They were to have been married last month but had to postpone the marriage until June.

 

Have -

  • 'have' हे सहाय्यकरी क्रियापद पूर्ण काळांची रचना करताना वापरतात.

उदा. He has worked. He has been working.

 

  • 'have to' हे मूळ धातुरूपाबरोबर बंधन दर्शविण्यासाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. I have to be there by five o'clock.
  2. He has to move the furniture himself.

  • 'had to' हे भूतकाळी रूप, भूतकाळातील बंधन व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. I had a be there by five o'clock.
  2. He had to move the furniture himself.

  • प्रश्नामध्ये किंवा नकारामध्ये 'have to' aani 'had to' हे do, does, did बरोबर वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. They have to go. - They don't have to go. Do they have to go?
  2. He has to go. - He doesn't have to go. Does he have to go?
  3. He had to go. - He didn't have to go. Did he have to go?

Do -

  • 'do' हे सहाय्यकारी क्रियापद खालील गोष्टींमध्ये वापरतात.

1. सर्वसाधारण क्रियापदांची साधा वर्तमान आणि साधा भूतकाळ यातील नकारार्थी आणि प्रश्नार्थी रुपे तयार करण्यासाठी.

उदा.

  1. He dosen't work. He didn't work.
  2. Does he work? Did he work?

2. आधीच्या सर्वसाधारण क्रियापदाची पुनरुक्ती टाळण्यासाठी.

उदा.

  1. Do you know him? Yes, I so.
  2. She sings well. Yes, she does.
  3. You met him, didn't you?
  4. He eats fish and so do you.

  • एखाधा विधानाच्या होकारार्थी गुणधर्मावर जोर देण्यासाठीदेखील 'do' vaapratat.

उदा.

  1. You do look pale.
  2. I told him not to go, but he did go.

  • आज्ञार्थात 'do' एखादी विनंती किंवा आमंत्रण अधिक लाघवी बनविते.

उदा.

  1. Do be quiet,
  2. Oh, do come! It's going to be such fun.

Can, Could, May, Might -

  • साधारणपणे 'can' सामर्थ्य (ability) किंवा क्षमता (capacity) व्यक्त करते.

उदा.

  1. I can swim across the river.
  2. He can work this sum.
  3. Can you lift this box?

  • 'can' आणि 'may' परवानगी व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात. खर तर 'may' हे औपचारिक आहे.
  1. You can/may go now.
  2. Can/May I borrow your umbrella?

  • होकारार्थी (affirmative) वाक्यांमध्ये 'may' शक्यता व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात. तत्सम (corresponding) प्रश्नार्थी किंवा नकारार्थी वाक्यांमध्ये 'can' वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. It may rain tomorrow.
  2. He may be at home.
  3. Can this be true?
  4. It cannot be true.

  • 'It cannot be true' ची 'It may not be ture' शी तुलना करा. cannot अशक्यता (Impossibility) व्यक्त करते तर may not असंभवनीयता (improbability) व्यक्त करते.

  • औपचारिक इंग्रजीमध्ये, 'may' इच्छा व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. May you live happily and long!
  2. May success attend you!

  • Could व might हे can व may चे भूतकाळातील समतुल्य म्हणून वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. I could swim across the river when I was young. (Ability)
  2. He said I might/could go. (Permission)
  3. I thought he might be at home. (Possibility)
  4. She wondered whether it could be true. (Possibility)

  • वरील पहिल्या उदाहरणाप्रमाणे 'could' हे फक्त एखादे कार्य करण्याचे सामर्थ्य व्यक्त करते. परंतु कार्याची कृती नाही.

  • When the boat was upset, we were able to (or managed to) swim to the bank. (not : we could swim to the bank)
  • नकारार्थी विधानांमध्ये मात्र एक तर 'could' किंवा was/were able to वापरू शकतो.

  • I couldn't (or:wasn't able to) solve the puzzle. आयटी was too difficult.

  • वर्तमानाच्या संदर्भात 'could' व 'might' ही 'can' व 'may' च्या कमी सकारात्मक आवृत्या म्हणून वापरता येतात.

उदा.

  1. I could attend the party. (Less positive and more hesitant than 'I can attend the party.')
  2. Might/Could I borrow your bicycle? (A diffident way of saying 'May/Can I.....')
  3. It might rain tomorrow. (Less positive than 'It may rain.....')
  4. Could you pass me the salt? (Polite request)

  • 'might' हे असमाधान किंवा दूषण व्यक्त करण्यासाठीदेखील वापरतात.

उदा. You might pay a little more attention to your appearance.

  • can, could, may आणि might यांचा पूर्ण अनियंत्रित क्रियापदाबरोबरच (perfect infinitive) वापर लक्षात घ्या.
  • He is not there. Where can he have gone?(=Where is it possible that he has gone?-May express annoyance.)

  • You could have accepted the offer. (=Why didn't you accept the offer?)
  • Fatima may/might have gone with Saroja. (=Possible Fatima has gone/went with Saroja.)

  • Why did you drive so carelessly? You might have run into the lamppost. (=It is fortunate that you didn't run into the lamppost.)

Shall, Should, Will, Would -

  • भविष्यकाळ व्यक्त करण्यासाठी प्रथम पुरुषात shall वापरतात आणि will सर्व पुरुष वाचकांमध्ये वापरतात. आजकाल I/we पेक्षा I/we shall चा वापर कमी प्रचलित आहे.

उदा.

  1. I shall/will be twenty-five next birthday.
  2. We will need the money on 15th.
  3. When shall we see you again?
  4. Tomorrow will be Sunday.
  5. You will see that I am right.   

  • आजकालच्या इंग्रजीत मात्र सर्व पुरुषांमध्ये 'will' वापरण्याची प्रवृत्ती जास्त आहे.
  • 'shall' हे कधीकधी आज्ञा (command), वचन वा धमकी व्यक्त करण्यासाठी व्दितीय व तृतीय पुरुषात वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. He shall not enter my house again. (Command) (आज्ञा)
  2. You shall have a holiday tomorrow. (Promise) (प्रतिज्ञा)
  3. You shall be punished for this. (धमकी)

टीप - 'shall' चा असा वापर कालबाह्य व औपचारिक आहे आणि आधुनिक इंग्रजीत त्याचा वापर सामान्यत: टाळतात.

 

  • Shall/we ने तयार होणारे प्रश्न संबोधित व्यक्तीची इच्छा विचारण्यासाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. Shall I open the door?(i.e., Do you want me to open it?)
  2. Which pen shall I buy?(i.e., What is your advice?)
  3. Where shall we go?(What is your suggestion?)

  • Will खालील गोष्टी व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात.

1. स्वेच्छा (volition)

उदा.

  1. I will(=am willing to) carry your books.
  2. I will(=promise to) try to do better next time.
  3. I will(=am determined to) succeed or die in the attempt.

  • वरील शेवटच्या उदाहरणात, will वर आघात आहे.

2. वैशिष्ट्यपूर्ण सवय

उदा.

  1. He will talk about nothing but films.
  2. She will sit for hours listening to the wireless.

3. गृहीतक वा संभवनीयता

उदा.

  1. This will be the book you want, I suppose.
  2. That will be the postman, I think.
  3. Will you? (आमंत्रण किंवा विनंती सूचित करतो.)
  4. Will you have tea?
  5. Will you lend me your scooter?

  • 'Should' व 'would' हे 'shall' व 'will' चे भूतकाळी समतूल्य म्हणून वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. I expected that I should (more often : would) get a first class.
  2. He said he would be twenty-five next birthday.
  3. She said she would carry my books.
  4. She would sit for hours listening to the wireless. (Past habit)

  • 'Should' हे सर्व पुरुषांत कर्तव्य किंवा बंधन व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. We should obey the laws.
  2. You should keep your promise.
  3. Children should obey their parents.

  • संकेतवाचक उपवाक्यात 'should' हे सत्य नसण्याची शक्यता असलेली अटकळ व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. If it should rain, they will not come.
  2. If he should see me here, he will be annoyed.

  • खालील उपवाक्यात 'should' हे सत्य नसण्याची शक्यता असलेली अटकळ व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

i. I should (or:would) like you to help her. ('should/would like' is a polite form of 'want').

ii. Would you lend me your scooter, please?('Would you?' is more polite than 'Will you?')

iii. You should have been more careful. (Should+perfect infinitive indicates a past obligation that was not fulfilled).

iv. He should be in the library now. (Expresses probability)

v. I wish you would not chatter so much. (Would after wish expresses a strong desire).

i. ('Should/would like' 'want' चे नम्र रूप आहे.)

ii. ('Would you?' 'Will you?' पेक्षा अधिक नम्रता व्यक्त करतो.)

iii.(Should+पूर्ण क्रियार्थक नाम त्या भूतकाळवाचक आभार कडे संकेत करतात जे पूर्ण होऊ शकले नाही.)

iv. (संभवनीयता दर्शविते)

v. (Wish च्या नंतर would तीव्र इच्छेला व्यक्त करते.)

 

Must, Ought to -

  • गरज वा बंधन व्यक्त करण्यासाठी must वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. You must improve your spelling.
  2. We must get up early.

  • (A) 'must' हे वर्तमान किंवा नजिकच्या भविष्याचा उल्लेख करते. must चे भूतकाळी रूप नाही. भूतकाळाविषयी बोलताना आपण 'had to' (have to चे भूतकाळी रूप) वापरतो.

उदा. Yesterday we had to get up early.

 

  • 'must' हे जेव्हा बंधन वक्त्यानेच घातलेले असते तेव्हाच बहुतांशी वापरतात. जेव्हा दुसर्‍या कुठूनतरी (कोणीतरी) बंधन घातलेले असते/लादले गेले असते तेव्हा बहुथा 'have to' वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. Living in such crowded conditions must be difficult. (=I am sure it is defficult.)
  2. She must have left already. (I am sure she has left already).

  • Ought (to) हे, नैतिक बंधन किंवा इष्टता (desirability) व्यक्त करते.

उदा.

  1. We ought to love our neighbours.
  2. We ought to help him.
  3. You ought to know better.

  • Ought (to) संभवनीयता व्यक्त करण्यासाठीदेखील वापरतात.

उदा.      

  1. Prices ought to come down soon.
  2. This book ought to be very useful.

Used (to), Need, Dare -

  • 'Used (to)' हे सहाय्यकारी क्रियापद आत्ता चालू नसलेली (स्थगित) सवय व्यक्त करण्यासाठी वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. There used to be a house there.
  2. I used to live there when I was a boy.
  • काटेकोरपणे म्हटले तर, used(to) हे सहाय्यकारी क्रियापद आहे. इंग्रजी बोलीभाषेत मात्र 'Did you use to' व 'Did not use to' या ऐवजी साधारणत: 'used to' आणि 'used not to' वापरतात.

  • गरज वा बंधन दर्शविणारे 'need' हे सहाय्यकारी क्रियापद do बरोबर किंवा do शिवाय चालविता येते. जेव्हा do शिवाय चालविले जाते तेव्हा त्याची -s व -ed ची रुपे होत नाहीत आणि फक्त नकारार्थी व प्रश्नार्थी वाक्यांमध्ये आणि 'scarcely' व 'hardly' या सारखे निम नकरार्थी शब्द समाविष्ट असलेल्या वाक्यामध्ये हे (क्रियापद need) मूळ धातुरूपाबरोबर to शिवाय वापरतात.

उदा.

  1. He need not go. (=It is not nescessary for him to go)
  2. Need I write to him?
  3. I need hardly take his help.

  • जेव्हा do बरोबर चालविले जाते तेव्हा need ची needs, needed अशी नेहमींची रुपे होतात आणि 'to' या धातुरूपाबरोबर वापरतात. सर्वसाधारणपणे हे (क्रियापद need) नकारार्थात व प्रश्नांमध्ये वापरतात. कधीकधी हे होकारार्थात देखील येते.

  1. Do you need to go now?
  2. I don't need to meet him.
  3. One needs to be careful.

तुलना करा.

i. I didn't need to buy it.(=It was not necessary for me to buy it and I didn't buy it.)

ii. I needn't have bought it.(=It was not necessary for me to buy it, but I bought it.)

  • 'dare' (आवश्यक तेवढे धाडसी असणे) हे सहाय्यकारी क्रियापद dare (आव्हान देणे) या सर्वसाधारण क्रियापदापेक्षा वेगळे असल्यामुळे याला वर्तमानकाळ वाचक तृतीय पुरुषी एकवचनात 's' लागत नाही. सर्वसाधारणपणे हे नकारार्थी व प्रश्नार्थी वाक्यांत वापरतात.

  • जेव्हा do शिवाय चालविलेले असते तेव्हा त्या पुढे to शिवायचे धातुरूप येते. जेव्हा do बरोबर चालविले जाते तेव्हा त्यानंतर to सकट किंवा to शिवाय धातुरूप येते.  
  1. He dare not take such a step.
  2. How dare you contradict me?
  3. He dared not do it.
  4. He doesn't dare speak to me.

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